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BATTERY ELECTRIC VEHICLES (BEV)

  • Propelled solely by a battery-powered electric motor.
  • Typically can operate up to 100 miles to 350 miles on a single charge.

Examples: Tesla model 3, Nissan Leaf…

PLUG-IN HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE(PHEV)

  • Propelled by a combination of a battery powered electric motor and a gas-powered internal combustion engine.
  • Operates up to 40 miles on battery power and then switches to the internal combustion engine to propel the engine directly or through the electric motor.

Example : Chevrolet volt, Volvo sc620…

WHERE DOES CHARGING TAKES PLACE?

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TESLA MODEL 3:

 

NAME TESLA MODEL3
TYPE ELECTRIC VEHICLE
SPEED 0-60 MILES LESS THAN 6 SECONDS
DRIVING RANGE 215 MILES ( MINIMUM)
BATTERY LITHIUM ION
BATTERY MANUFACTURERS GIGA FACTORY
PRE-ORDERS 3,25,000 CARS
CHARGING TYPE SUPER CHARGING
SAFETY 5 STAR IN ALL CATEGORIES
RELEASE DATE 2017 END
BASE PRICE USD35000

Tesla is now the giant in manufacturing of electric vehicles. The company recently launched a new model called Tesla MODEL3, which has become the talk of the world now with people from various parts of the world started pre-booking this EV. USD1000 is required to pre-book the car and customers can cancel it at any time before delivery. Tesla has already received 3,25,000 pre-orders for this model and there would be more once the car manufacturer starts selling in the market. Tesla had beefed up it’s production facilities and charging stations for which the brief summary is as follows:

  • There are 3608 super charging and 3702 destination charging stations working and available across the world. By the end of the next year company’s management is expecting the numbers to grow to 7200 super charging and 15000 destination charging stations across the world.
  • Tesla stores are available across the world at 215 locations and by next year Tesla is going to double the stores to around 441.
  • Tesla believes lithium ion is the last element on which the world would depend on and has constructed a factory called GIGA Factory, which is the world’s largest lithium ion cell producer, output from this factory would be 50 Giga watt hours per year. Factory is operational from April 2016
  • Tesla would be able to manufacture 5,00,000 units of its EVs per year.
  • Tesla is going to deliver the model 3 EV to North America first followed by Europe and Asia.
  • Tesla is getting ready to deliver cars to India by manufacturing right hand drive vehicles by latter half of 2017.

India is the biggest untapped market for Electric vehicles and by next year end or may be early 2018 there would be Tesla cars rolling in India. Other EV car manufacturers are also getting ready to launch their cars in India and EVs could become highly popular in a country that is facing rising pollution levels.

GIGA FACTORY

Tesla is starting its in-house battery manufacturing at GIGA factory, which would be the biggest lithium ion battery manufacturer in the world. The factory would be operational in the first quarter of 2016. Tesla’s mission is to accelerate the world’s transition to sustainable transportation. To achieve that goal, the company should be able to produce electric vehicles in sufficient volumes to force a change in the automobile industry. With a planned production rate of 500,000 cars per year in the latter half of this decade, Tesla alone would require today’s entire worldwide production of lithium ion batteries. The Tesla GIGA factory was born out of necessity and would supply enough batteries to support the company’s projected vehicle demand. In cooperation with Panasonic and other strategic partners, the GIGA factory would produce batteries at significantly lower cost using economies of scale, innovative manufacturing, reduction of waste and the simple optimization of locating most manufacturing process under one roof. Tesla expects to drive down the per kilowatt hour (kWh) cost of battery pack by more than 30%. The GIGA factory would also be powered by renewable energy sources, with the goal of achieving net zero energy. The factory is located at Nevada (USA) and is powered by solar, wind and geo thermal energy.

Electric Vehicles in China

According to the China Association of Automobile Manufacturers, China surpassed the United States to become the world’s largest automobile market in 2009 with a record 13.9 million vehicles sold in the country, compared to 10.43 million cars and light trucks sold in the United States. There is a fast growing demand for transport in China as more people can afford to buy cars. To support its commitment to encourage electric-vehicle development the government provides USD15 billion to the industry. In addition to creating a world-leading industry that would produce jobs and exports, China’s intention is to reduce urban pollution and decrease its dependence on oil. As such, government’s goal is to have five million battery-electric and plug-in hybrid electric cars on the road by 2020, while also producing one million such vehicles annually by 2020. The government has established a policy framework to accelerate electric-vehicle technology development, while encouraging market transformation that would support research and development, regulate the industry and encourage consumption.

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EV MAKERS IN CHINA

BAIC (Beijing auto)

MODEL BATTERY USED DRIVING RANGE TOP SPEED
ES 210 Lithium ion 175 130
EU 260 Ternary Lithium 260 140
E150 EV Lithium ion 140 125
C30 EV Lithium ion 200 160

Beiqi Foton

MODEL BATTERY USED DRIVING RANGE TOP SPEED
MIDI EV Lithium Manganese 170 140

BMW Brilliance

MODEL BATTERY USED DRIVING RANGE TOP SPEED
Zinoro 1E Lithium ion phosphate 150 130

BYD-Daimler

MODEL BATTERY USED DRIVING RANGE TOP SPEED
DENZA- EV LiFePO4 253 150

Changan

This particular model of this company E30 is used as taxi in china, EV released In February 2012(approximately 100 taxi’s were sold).

MODEL BATTERY USED DRIVING RANGE TOP SPEED
E30 Lithium ion 160 125

Dongfeng Nissan

This particular model of this company Venuncia E30 is used as taxi in china, EV released in September 2013.

MODEL BATTERY USED DRIVING RANGE TOP SPEED
Venuncia E30 Lithium ion 160

FAW Toyota

MODEL BATTERY USED DRIVING RANGE TOP SPEED
Ranz EV Lithium ion 120 —-

FAW Volkswagen

MODEL BATTERY USED DRIVING RANGE TOP SPEED
Carely LiFePO4 110 140

TOP EV SELLERS IN CHINA-2015

COMPANY MODEL BATTERY USED DRIVING RANGE TOP SPEED SALES BATTERY MANUFACTURERS
Kandi Kandi EV LiFePO4 80 80 16736 Tiajin-lishen battery co.ltd
BAIC BAIC-E150 Lithium ion 140 125 16488 Foxconn Technology group
Zotye Zotye Z100 Li(nicomn)o2 150 85 15467 Tiajin-lishen battery co.ltd
JAC JAC iEV Lithium ion 200 95 Over9000 SAIC Motor corp
Chery Chery eQ Lithium ion 200 100 7262 —-

Samsung SDI Corp & LG Chem supplies required raw material to almost all battery manufacturers in China and also manufacture batteries for a few car manufacturers.

Why Tesla could not make its presence felt in china?

Tesla being one of the biggest market innovator of EV in the world, did not quite succeed in China.

There are mainly two reasons for this:

  1. China government started supporting their domestic manufacturers by giving them subsidies for manufacturing EV.
  2. The charging port (connector) for a Tesla EV is different from local manufacturers, which means if anyone purchases a Tesla car they have to charge their cars only where the charging station supports Tesla technology.

These two factors were primarily responsible for disappointing Tesla sales in China and buyers who had booked Tesla cars cancelled them.

EV CHARGING STATION:

Beijing has started construction of the country’s largest solar charging station, capable of charging 80 electric cars per day. It would have 30 fast-charge points, capable of charging a car to full power within 40 minutes, and 20 slow-charge points that would charge a car in two hours. The complex, located at Shijingshan District, is a joint venture between Shougang Corporation, one of China’s largest steel companies and Tellus Power, which manufactures electric vehicle charging stations. EV car owners in China charge their cars in their garage or at local parking service providers.

Tesla associated with GO Electric Stations in China to provide electric charging stations for it’s customers.

Articles to refer: http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2015-12-15/china-seen-laying-15-billion-bet-future-of-autos-is-electric

Electric Vehicles in US

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TOP EV SELLERS IN USA

COMPANY MODEL DRIVING RANGE TOP SPEED SALES BATTERY BATTERY MANUFACTURERS
TESLA TESLA S 370 210 25,700 Lithium ion Panasonic corporation
NISSAN Nissan

Leaf

135 150 17,269 Lithium ion Nissan,Automotive energy supply co.
BMW BMW i3

 

160 150 11,024 Lithium ion Samsun SDI co.ltd
FIAT Fiat 500e

 

160 137 6194 Lithium ion

Liquid cool

Bosch/Samsung
Volkswagen Volkswagen

e-golf

83 87 4232 Lithium ion Volkswagen

LIST OF BATTERY MANUFACTURERS IN USA:

BATTERY MANUFACTURER EV MAKER TYPES
A123Systems  General Motors, Daimler Buses North America, Kandi, Mercedes-Benz High Performance Engines (Formula One racing kinetic energy recovery system (KERS). lithium ion(lithium iron phosphate)
AESC Nissan vehicles Li-ion
Axeon Jaguar Cars, Land Rover, Electric Car Corporation lithium iron phosphate
Bosch/Samsung FIAT 500E Lithium ion
BATTERY MANUFACTURER EV MAKER TYPES
Panasonic Tesla Motors Lithium-ion
LG Chem General Motors Chevrolet Volt, Renault ZOE, Chevy Spark, Chevy Bolt, Volvo S60 (SPA) Lithium-ion
XALT Energy Electric buses Lithium-ion

EV CHARGING STATIONS IN USA

REGION PROVIDER NUMBER
California
Tesla
Charge point
EATON
NRG energy
GM EV1
TOTAL
15
580
100
200
250
1,145
Washington State Charge point 237
Washington D.C/Baltimore Charge point 164
Portland Portland G.electric 20
Chicago Area JNS power 350
Boston Charge point 108
New York/ New jersy Charge point 128
Florida Charge point 275
Seattle EV project 407
Tennessee EV project 365

According to USA department of energy there are 12,885 electric stations & 31,814 charging outlets that are functional completely with Level 1 & Level 2 facility. Key providers are: Charge point, EV project, JNS power, Go Electric. U.S. President Barack Obama has announced 48 new advanced battery and electric drive projects that would receive USD2.4 billion in funding. These projects would accelerate the development of U.S. manufacturing capacity for batteries and electric drive components as well as the deployment of electric drive vehicles, helping to establish American leadership in creating the next generation of advanced vehicles. The announcement marks the single largest investment in advanced battery technology for hybrid and electric-drive vehicles ever made. U.S. Government gave around USD1.5 billion in grants to United States-based manufacturers to produce batteries and their components and to expand battery recycling capacity.

CONNECTORS

There are types of connectors, which can also be called as electric vehicle supply equipment.

  1. LEVEL 1:

In the US, standard outlets are at 120 volts. All Level 1 charging is done at this voltage. Depending on the car and the level of charge on the battery, Level 1 charging can take 8 – 16 hours to charge. Level 1 charging would typically take place at home. All new EVs would come with a Level 1 charging cord.

  1. LEVEL 2:

Level 2 charging uses 208 or 240 volts and is able to fully charge a battery in 4 – 6 hours. This charge time is optimal for overnight or long-length charging. This is the preferred EV charging method for both public and private facilities. They would be typically found in public areas, parking garages and commercial businesses.

  1. LEVEL 3:

Level 3 or Fast Charging can provide 80% of a full charge in fewer than 30 minutes. Level-3 are the EV equivalent to the commercial gas station. These units are very expensive and require significant facilities and training. Initially, only trained specialists would be able to operate Level 3 chargers. At this time exact voltage and load specifications for Level 3 charging have not yet been defined. The vehicle must be properly equipped to accept a Level 3 charge.

Electric Vehicles in India

Vehicles in India are mostly driven by internal combustion engines and plug-in electric vehicles, pure electric car manufacturers are hard to find. Yet there are few companies that are trying to get their presence in this market, as of now Mahindra & Mahindra trademark masterpiece REVA is famous in India for electric cars. Recently few world famous car manufacturers released their EV models but they are not selling them yet.

COMPANY MODEL TOP SPEED DRIVING RANGE BATTERY BATTERY MANUFACTURERS
HYUNDAI i10 electric 130 160 Lithium ion LG chem
MAHINDRA & MAHINDRA REVA e2o 90 120 Lithium ion —-
TATA

 

Megapixel
MAHINDRA & MAHINDRA Halo

LARGEST BATTERY MANUFACTURERS IN INDIA

RANK COMPANY
1 EXIDE INDUSTRIES LTD
2 AMARA RAJA INDUSTRIES LTD
3 HBL POWER SYSTEM LTD
4 BASE CORPORATION LTD
5 OKAYA POWER PVT LTD

TOP CABLE WIRE MANUFACTURERS IN INDIA

RANK COMPANY
1 POLYCAB WIRES PVT.LTD
2 STERLITE TECHNOLOGIES LTD
3 FINOLEX CABLES LTD
4 HAVELLS INDIA LTD

If at all in India there would be a boom in EV then users of these products require to install LEVEL 1 , 2, 3 connectors. To install connectors, charging stations need intense wiring at one particular place to pass electricity, companies which are mentioned above are listed and top 4 performers in cablewire field.

WHAT HAPPENED AT AUTO EXPO 2016: INDIA?

Most of the Car manufacturers showcased electric and hybrid vehicles at the Auto Expo that began in Greater Noida from two-wheelers to passenger cars to buses. Companies across segments are displaying electric and hybrid vehicles with a promise that Delhi, one of the world’s most polluted cities, would be able to breathe easier and that would help rest of India too. Hybrid versions of the Volkswagen Passat and Honda Accord would be launched to join Toyota’s Camry hybrid (there’s a huge jump in quarter 1 sales of Camry after Delhi implementing the odd-even rule). India’s largest two-wheeler maker Hero MotorCorp also made a green pitch, the company launched a bigger 110 cc version of the Splendor ismart and an electric scooter concept, the Duet-E. Maruti Suzuki came up with hybrid Ciaz & Ertiga (model names. Nearly 58%  sales of all Ciaz and Ertiga are hybrid models.

Mahindra & Mahindra, which has an electric vehicle unit, showcased its full range the Gen Ze electric scooter, the Formula E car, the Verito Electric Car underlining that the maker of the Scorpio and Bolero is ready with greener solutions for the future.

The heavy commercial segment saw the launch of an electric bus by JBM and a non-plugin hybrid by Ashok Leyland. Tata Motors, India’s largest heavy commercial vehicle manufacturer, also showcased a hybrid bus and is likely to display electric buses in the time ahead.

There is a clear interest from Indian automakers on EV models. M&M invested Rs.1 billion on Reva for further modifications, which shows there is a motto of transforming fossil fuel cars to electric cars.

DOES GOVERNMENT OF INDIA SUPPORT THIS TRANSFORMATION?

To promote eco-friendly vehicles, the government of India on 9th April 2015 formally launched the FAME (FASTER ADOPTION AND MANUFACTURING OF HYBRID AND ELECTRIC VEHICLES IN INDIA) scheme offering incentives on electric and hybrid vehicles of up to Rs. 29000 for bikes and Rs. 138,000  for cars. The heavy industries ministry has estimated a total requirement of about Rs.140 billion for the scheme. Phase-1 of the scheme would be implemented over a two year period in 2015-16 and 2016-17 with an approved outlay of Rs.7.95 billion, out of which Rs.5 billion would be spent on demand incentives. As per the scheme, depending on technology, battery operated scooters and motorcycles would be eligible for incentives ranging between Rs 1,800 to Rs 29,000, Similarly in three-wheelers, incentives are from Rs 3,300 and Rs 61,000 and in four-wheelers, the incentives range from Rs 13,000 to Rs 138,000, while in light commercial vehicles, incentives are from Rs 17,000 to Rs 187,000, and for buses from Rs 3.4 million to Rs 6.6 million.

ARE THEY ANY DRAWBACKS IN CASE OF INDIA?

India is not in a position to supply electricity to each and every corner of the country and showing a lot of interest for growth of EV’s might reflect a negative outlook.

  • In India 66% of electricity is generated through coal. Reducing fossil fuel based cars and putting a lot of pressure on thermal electricity balances the equation.
  • Electric cars are out of budget for Indians. M&M Reva e2o comes for Rs 629,000.
  • Availability of charging stations might take time.
  • India does not have lithium ion reserves to support large domestic market for electric vehicles.
  • India is the 2nd largest importer of oil in the world and there would be difficulties for Indian to shift from cheap resources to expensive resources especially if oil becomes cheaper than electricity in the future.

ANY CHEAP WAY TO TRANFORM FROM ICE TO EV?

Mumbai based company ELECTRIC VEHICLE INDIA (EVI) can convert any vehicle into hybrid or electric. According to the company, the kit does not affect the engine of the car. The kit which contains a motor, a controller for the motor, chargers, a battery management system and 800 to 1000 batteries comes in different sizes depending on the engine capacity of the car, which can range from 850cc to 2500cc and the best part is, to achieve maximum charge the battery would take 8-10 hours and utilise only eight units of electricity. Installing the EVI kit would not require the removal of the petrol/diesel engine from the car, instead the energy source can be changed with the flick of a switch.

WHAT CREATES DEMAND FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES IN INDIA?

The incentives under FAME program for EVs could lead to higher demand. The government is working on a scheme to provide electric cars on zero down payment for which people can pay out of their savings on expensive fossil fuels, with the aim of becoming 100 percent electric vehicle nation by 2030. Lately Delhi has banned 2000 cc diesel cars due to excessive carbon emission and also started with the odd –even rule, forcing people of Delhi to adopt non polluting vehicles. Similarly other cities in India too would promote EVs to reduce pollution levels thereby creating high demand. Companies like Tesla launching their much sought after models would also generate good interest for EVs in the country.

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C S S Nikhil Bhargav is a Research analyst for investors are idiots .com . He is a BFM ( Bachelors in Financial markets ) Graduate from University of Mumbai and Post-Graduate in Securities Markets from National Institute of Securities Markets, Mumbai.

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